Estrogens are female sex hormones. Normally, they are formed in small quantities in men. Hyperestrogenism is a state of increased estrogen levels (mainly estradiol and estrone).
The norm in men: estradiol (main form) 13-54 pg/ml, according to other sources 3-70 pg/ml. That is, you need to strive for a level of 10-30 pg/ml. If the level is above 70 picograms, then it must be reduced by pharmacological means.
Obesity contributes to the accumulation of female sex hormones in the male body, since it is in the adipose tissue that the aromatase converting enzyme is formed. Estrogen is synthesized in the body from certain anabolic hormones as a result of aromatization.
As with the use of anabolic steroids, which are able to aromatize (convert to estrogen), and in the normal state, an increase in estrogen levels sometimes occurs, which leads to the occurrence of gynecomastia, impotence (decreased libido), fluid accumulation, arterial hypertension, feminization, spider veins (telangiectasia) and other side effects.
Mostly estrogens, not testosterone, suppress the hypothalamus-pituitary-testes axis and reduce the secretion of endogenous testosterone when exogenous drugs are administered.
It should be noted that an excessive decrease in estrogen levels is also undesirable for men's health and fitness, since these hormones are necessary for muscle growth and repair, as well as for the functioning of the reproductive, cardiovascular system, bones and joints. Studies have shown that complete suppression of estrogen leads to decreased physical activity and muscle breakdown. Estrogens increase the concentration of thyroxine in the blood. They have an anti-atherosclerotic effect; normalize the lipid profile and lower cholesterol levels (triglyceride levels increase).
How to lower estrogen in men
In bodybuilding, when using anabolic steroids, aromatase inhibitors, usually Letrozol or Anastrozol, are used throughout the course of the AAS if drugs that are prone to aromatization are used. In addition, Proviron (Provimed), Nolvadex (Tamoximed) or Clomid (Clomed) are used (the latter two block receptors).
- Some vitamins and minerals allow estrogen to be inactivated more quickly. Oxidative stress leads to the formation of semi-quinones and quinones - metabolites of female sex hormones that cause irreversible damage to the DNA of cells, therefore, you need to provide your own antioxidant system with the necessary elements (a vitamin-mineral complex is prescribed). So, copper and zinc are essential for superoxide dismutase.
Selenium and acetylcysteine are for glutathione peroxidase. Vitamin B3 - for glutathione reductase. Iron is for catalase. It is also important that vitamins are involved in the destruction (methylation) and elimination (elimination) of estrogen in men in the liver.
- An important condition for the normal functioning of methylation processes in the body is the consumption of a sufficient amount of protein. This is due to the fact that s-adenosine-methionine is a universal donor of methyl groups in the body, which, in turn, is formed from the amino acid methionine, which is consumed mainly with animal protein.
- Also, to suppress oxidative stress, it makes sense to prescribe antioxidants such as green tea catechins, lycopene, turmeric, limonene, vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, which can inactivate the reactive oxygen species.
- Of particular note are the antioxidants – Naringenin, a flavonoid found in grapefruits, and resveratrol found in red grapes, both interfere with estrogen signaling through direct and indirect blocking effects on the estrogen receptor a receptor. Moreover, the mechanism of action of these nutrients is different.
- To reduce the absorption of estrogen in the intestine (enterohepatic recirculation), it is necessary to consume enough fiber. This will reduce the level of estrogen throughout the body. The most active sorbs of estrogens are soy fiber and flax seed fiber. Beta-glucuronidase, a bacterial enzyme that cleaves glucuronic acid from detoxified compounds (estrogens), plays an important role in the recirculation of female sex hormones from the intestines. The most potent inhibitor of the activity of this enzyme is calcium glucarate, a nutrient present in some vegetables. In addition, silymarin and licorice root also reduce its activity.
- It is necessary to avoid frequent alcohol consumption, which increases estrogen in men. Avoid soy foods that are rich in estrogen-like isoflavonoids (although this is a controversial issue).
- Recent studies have shown that the consumption of coffee and tea leads to positive effects, however, the data are conflicting.
Estrogens in men are destroyed in the liver within a few hours:
- At the first stage, estrogens under the action of enzymes of the cytochrome P450 group undergo transformation with the formation of intermediate products (2-hydroxy-, 16-hydroxy-, 4-hydroxyestrogens).
- After passing through the 1st stage of transformations, 2-hydroxy- and 4-hydroxy-metabolites of female sex hormones can be converted into semiquinones (compounds that have a genotoxic effect) or, by methylation, into 2- and 4-methoxyestrogens.